Sophia And The Queen of Heaven

In various Gnostic Christian myths, Sophia was the catalyst who gave rise to creation and the material realm.  Sophia, the timeless being, or Aeon, who existed in the realm of perfection (Pleroma) as the archetype of Wisdom, felt inclined to manifest a creation of her own.  But because she lacked the proper toolset or polarity, her creation was imperfect, and this imperfection caused an eruption in the Pleroma.


Sophia created Yaldabaoth (aka Saklas, Samael), an ignorant being hell-bent on crafting his own collection of inferior beings.  This gave rise to the creation of the material realm, along with several (7, 12, or 365) princes (archons) who would subsequently rule this new realm.  These ruling archons had heads of animals, and were often associated with fallen angels.

It was no coincidence that the number of archons were correlated to our calendar.  As in other religions, these material rulers were synonymous with planets, stars, and celestial bodies.

Sophia’s first creation, Yaldabaoth, was the Demiurge.  He was the craftsman responsible for design and creation of our universe.  One intriguing implication in this matrix (pun intended) is that it solves the problem of evil because it spares the “most high” God the responsibility of our pain-ridden, cancer-filled, war-torn creation; rather, it was Sophia and her fall from grace which gave rise to our earthly woes.  Despite her role in the eruption within the Pleroma, the Gnostics considered Sophia humanity’s mother, perhaps because she is humanity’s most direct connection to the Pleroma.

I see many aspects of Gnosticism as a collection of “modules”.  One module which integrated well within Gnosticism was Platonism, particularly Plato’s forms.  The Aeons in the Pleroma were Platonic forms, all manifested from the Monad, or the most high God.  Other Aeons included Nous (mind), Aletheia (revealed truth), Anthropos (man), and Ecclesia (church) – indeed, these concepts were present in Plato’s day and philosophy.  These aeons were archetypes for material phenomena, similar to Plato’s forms – they were the light which shone to create earthly shadows, as depicted in Plato’s Allegory of the Cave.  In this allegory, Socrates had the misfortune of receiving Gnosis by being dragged out of the cave.  During this revelation, the protagonist realizes that the obfuscated shadows on the cave’s wall, were actually more concrete than he and his fellow prisoners had ever imagined.  He was murdered by his contemporaries for sharing his insights.

Another module within Gnosticism was its integration with Judaism, specifically the creation story in Genesis.

Instead of the most-high God inventing Adam and Eve, it was really the Demiurge, which is why Genesis 1:26 has God speaking in the plural when he says “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness”.  The reason for the plural speech was because Yaldabaoth was speaking to his fellow archons.

Detecting Yaldabaoth’s mal-intent, Sophia delivered part of the divine spark to Eve, whose Spirit was then transplanted into the Tree of Knowledge.  The serpent brought Adam and Eve forbidden fruit which concealed Gnosis and/or the Divine Spark.   In contrast to Orthodox Judaism, the Gnostic story has the snake in the Garden of Eden as a heroic, salvific figure rather than an adversary of humanity or ‘proto-Satan’.  Likewise, eating the fruit of Knowledge was the first act of human salvation from cruel, oppressive powers, rather than humanity’s first act of rebellion.  In this light, it was the God of Genesis who seems the more likely prototype for Satan (in my opinion, Yaldabaoth was indeed the prototype for the eventual Orthodoxy’s picture of Satan).

One could spend much time puzzling over how such a heterodoxical view could have emerged out of the Judaism we understand today.  This puzzle is solved easily enough when considering the variety of influences early Gnostics had, notably Platonic and Alexandrian influences.  If we presume these Gnostics were Diaspora Jews living between Alexandria and Syria, this speculation is economical enough.

However, I have become skeptical of the notion that this Jewish Gnosticism was simply a fringe, cultish offshoot.

Rather, I believe the earlier version of Sophia was the Queen of Heaven, who was purged from Orthodox Judaism some 700 years earlier with King Josiah’s Deuteronomic Reform.  The catalyst for Josiah’s reform was when the priest Hilkiah found a “Book of the Law” in the temple during the early stages of Josiah’s temple renovation – different versions of this story are found in 2 Kings 22-23 and 2 Chronicles 34-35.  Among other things, the Book of the Law contained a large portion of extant Deuteronomy, and instructed its readers

Behold I have taught you the statutes and ordinances, as the LORD my God commanded me…Keep them and do them, for that will be your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples…And when you look up to the sky and see the sun, the moon and the stars—all the heavenly array—do not be enticed into bowing down to them and worshiping things the Lord your God has apportioned to all the nations under heaven…You were shown these things so that you might know that the Lord is God; besides him there is no other

A detectable theme was the contrast between earthly and heavenly wisdom.  Where pre-Deuteronomic reform made concessions for a Spiritual wisdom emanated from the most high, Josiah’s version transferred such wisdom to Mosaic Law.  Metaphorically, the Tree of Life was the Law, and the Tree of Wisdom was the wisdom which Josiah sought to purge.

Jeremiah 44:18-19 captures the lament of the Queen’s worshipers:

“But since we stopped burning sacrifices to the queen of heaven and pouring out drink offerings to her, we have lacked everything and have met our end by the sword and by famine.”

Indeed, the Queen of Heaven, like Sophia, was Wisdom.  The fact that both were female is not inconsequential.

As a result of Josiah’s Deuteronomic Reform, the Queen of Heaven returned to her place among the angels.  She was replaced by unrighteousness – a new woman.  This is described in 1 Enoch 42

Wisdom found not a place on earth where she could inhabit; her dwelling therefore is in heaven…But iniquity went forth after her return, who unwillingly found a habitation, and resided among them, as rain in the desert, and as dew in a thirsty land…[Chapter 43] I beheld another splendour, and the stars of heaven

Wisdom’s replacement on Earth, in my opinion, can be identified as the whore of Bablyon in the Book of Revelation (by extension, she was the 2nd Jewish temple):

There I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns…And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. And when I saw her, I wondered with a great wonder. And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou wonder? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and the ten horns.

The woman sat on the same red dragon who attacked the woman clothed in the sun in Revelation 12:

A great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on its heads.

The woman who was clothed in the sun was the Queen of Heaven.  She was pregnant and ready to give birth to the messiah.  Interestingly, messiah means “the anointed.”  What was the messiah anointed with?  The answer (obviously) is oil.  But what oil?  The oil from the Tree of Wisdom!*

*Note:  I believe there was a point of contention here.  Some pre-Christians believed the lady represented the Tree of Life, where others (probably those outside of Jerusalem) believed she represented the Tree of Wisdom

In Revelation, the child was born and was taken by God to heaven (Rev 12:5).  There is a correlation between Revelation’s description of the Christ’s mother and the one described by Irenaeus (in reference to Valentinus):

Christ also was not produced from the Aeons within the Pleroma, but was brought forth by the mother who had been excluded from it, in virtue of her remembrance of better things, but not without a kind of shadow.

The mother who was excluded from the Pleroma was Sophia, and she gave birth to the Christ, just as in Revelation, which described the Queen’s role in the preliminary battle in heaven, the dragon who catalyzed the battle, and the subsequent war which would be fought, which would usher in a thousand year peace in the New Jerusalem (Rev 20:2, Rev 21:2).

An instance of a veiled Queen reference comes in John’s Gospel with 153 fish in John 21:11.  Margaret Barker speculates in King of the Jews: Temple Theology in John’s Gospel that this is an instance of gematria, similar to 666 in Revelation, which was a reference to the Hebrew name Nero.  In this case, Barker speculates that the 153 is a reference to “children of a queen”, which is
BNY MLK:  B(2) + N(50) + Y(10) + M(40) + L(30) + K(20) + 1 = 153. 

These children of the queen were referenced in Revelation 12:17, who the red dragon attacked after he could no longer pursue the Queen.

This lady is detectable in Apocrypha, as well.  We glean insight from how her followers saw her in 2 Esdras 9-10, when Ezra encounters, in the field, a grieving woman with ashes in her hair.  The lady was grieving because her son died in the bridal chamber when he was 30 years old.  In 2 Esdras, the lady turns into the New Jerusalem, and her son is revealed to be Solomon’s temple.

This is a striking representation, because if this text has any relation to early Christianity, it means that the Christ was the male Spirit, who would exist in polarity with the feminine Spirit, and they would underlay the temple and the city, respectively.  Consider 1 Corin 3:16 in this context: “Do you not know that you yourselves are God’s temple, and that God’s Spirit dwells in you?”

Also consider Galatians 4:19:  “My children, with whom I am again in pains of labor until Christ is formed in you”

For Paul, the Christ forms within the children, and those children are God’s temple, and they are surrounded by the Spirit – the community of Christians was the temple and the Christ and the spirit and the city.  In this context, I think Paul was saying that he remembered his time before he was born, when he lived in a higher realm, sent by the unknowable God.  Most conservative Christians would probably disagree with me on this point, though (then again, most people who have investigated these topics will disagree with me on almost everything).

There are other strange manifestations in other Apocrypha, as well.  Consider The Gospel of Peter, where an animated Cross is described coming out of the recently emptied tomb:

And while they were relating what they had seen, again they see three males who have come out from they sepulcher, with the two supporting the other one, and a cross following them, and the head of the two reaching unto heaven, but that of the one being led out by a hand by them going beyond the heavens. And they were hearing a voice from the heavens saying, ‘Have you made proclamation to the fallen-asleep?’ And an obeisance was heard from the cross, ‘Yes.

Though this description of the walking Cross (along with the humongous men whose heads reached to heaven) is odd, I believe it is an artifact of an earlier Christianity, where there were Spirits which underlay the temple and the holy city, and those Spirits were prepared to manifest in the material realm when the time was right, and there would be male and female Paracletes who would encapsulate the Spirit and the Christ.

This might describe why the heretic Elxai (who used an apocalyptic text which described a war amongst angels in heaven – and which I presume to be a proto-Revelation), along with his Ebionite, Nazarene, and Nasarene followers, believed the Christ and the Spirit were 96 mile tall masculine and feminine Spirits in the sky.  It is because they were.  Elxai represents the earliest iteration of Christianity, and church fathers Hippolytus and Epiphanius unwittingly let the cat out of the bag, in terms of theological origins.


Author: Tim...Stepping Out

Tim Stepping Out

22 thoughts on “Sophia And The Queen of Heaven”

  1. It just struck me that much of the Jewish scripture was composed while they were still polytheistic, placing the monotheism movement to the sixth century BCE as it were. I wonder how much redacting, aka touching up, was done to emphasize the new reality of monotheism.


    1. I think it was lots…including the entirety of Genesis. Margaret Barker gives many speculations about the royal Jewish religion, and that many of the Genesis stories were written in the context of the Queen of Heaven, Ba’al, and Yahweh, along with other high ranking angels.


  2. I think there was a convergence of sorts of various streams of thought regarding Wisdom, Sophia, and Queen of Heaven. One such source may have been the surrounding neighbouring cults of mother goddesses like Asherah, the wife of the god El, but may also include syncretic variances of Isis, Nut, Cybele, Athena and Anahita.

    Wherein in relates to Christianity: the mother figure of Mary certainly constitutes such a continuation of this idea of a “mother of God” motif. I have thought for some time the woman mentioned in Revelation 12 is indeed the spirit, or personification, of the Temple, who, much like Sophia and Jesus in scattered Gnostic texts, is torn asunder and [her children] scattered about. Of course this also ties into the Osiris cult, and Plutarch and Proclus interpreted Osiris’s dismemberment as the dissemination of his spirit across the world. How Egyptians even thought of their country as the body of Geb, and their major cities as the burial sites of Osiris’s body parts, sounds eerily similar to how Paul describes the church as the body of Christ.

    Also worth noting is how Temples in Egypt were also believed to be representations of the body of gods, like Ptah and Amun. They were not just stone buildings but possessed the Ka of their respective deities. In regards to Judaism, the Temple itself is viewed as feminine, with the pillars Boaz and Jachin being the legs, with interior representing the sexual organs of women.

    The dual gendered spirits may incorporate the idea of Sophia and Logos, or wisdom and rationality respectively, and maybe the earliest form of Trinitarian beliefs. This seems to be Theophilus’s understanding anyway, with Wisdom and Logos acting as the hands of the creator. That actually is an interesting thought about a male and female Paraclete. It may explain why some heretical leaders had female companions, like Paul and Thecla, Simon and Helen, and Apelles and Philumena.

    With regards to the Gospel of Peter, the two spirits in this instance may actually be alluding to Aaron and Hur, the men who held Moses’s arms up so as to ensure victory over the Amalekites. This also explains why the cross, the stauros, speaks, as it was an extension of the idea that the Stadios figure was an emulation of Moses and his standing on the hill as a cross, ensuring salvation to those who looked upon him.


  3. Man, I think after reading your blog for almost a year I think. I’m getting the impression that just like modern day Christianity, Gnosticism isn’t a monolithic belief system. Back in 2011, I used to say that “Modern Christianity is a descendant of ancient Gnosticism plus Judaism plus paganism”, now I think that statement is too much oversimplification especially that Gnosticism by itself is too broad.

    Correct me if I’m wrong with this Tim but I think the belief about Sophia & the queen of heaven is an attempt to restore the divine feminine aspect of ancient religions that was usurped by patriarchy in orthodox Judaism? I might derail from the post but I think there are pre-Christian beliefs that used to start with a woman as a creator but later replaced. The Greek god Dionysus was born from the woman Semele but in another myth, Dionysus was born from the thigh of Zeus. With that said, I think Marcion’s brand of Gnosticism is a little bit sexist which made its way to the canonical epistles.

    Wherein in relates to Christianity: the mother figure of Mary certainly constitutes such a continuation of this idea of a “mother of God” motif. I have thought for some time the woman mentioned in Revelation 12 is indeed the spirit, or personification, of the Temple, who, much like Sophia and Jesus in scattered Gnostic texts, is torn asunder and [her children] scattered about. Of course this also ties into the Osiris cult, and Plutarch and Proclus interpreted Osiris’s dismemberment as the dissemination of his spirit across the world. How Egyptians even thought of their country as the body of Geb, and their major cities as the burial sites of Osiris’s body parts, sounds eerily similar to how Paul describes the church as the body of Christ.

    I know that Osiris’s severed penis actually means the sharp star Sothis/Sirius which appears when the Nile River starts flooding the banks. Do you think Paul (Marcion?) took that concept and integrated it with his brand of Gnosticism? Could he be describing them like in Romans 16:16?
    Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ send greetings.


    1. The term Gnosticism is very problematic in scholarship…some (not crazy) scholars even say the word Gnostic should be tossed out. It’s very broad, and I think sometimes the term Gnostic gets overly used. For instance, I don’t think of the Ebionites and Cerinthians were Gnostics, but I think they were definitely on a spectrum which resembled it.

      I’m not convinced that all the earliest Christians sought to restore the Queen, but I do believe Christianity emerged from that view…of course, I think there were a lot of other mystical things going on as well.

      What part of Marcion do you see as sexist?


      1. The cock was a symbol for Nrgl, a chaldean deity equivalent to Mars or Ares in the Grecoroman world. In Chaldean astrology, it announces a violent death. In addition, Nrgl/Ares/Mars is responsible for male virility, which explains the phallic beak.


    2. @jonathan Actually Sirius/Sothis was the Ba of Isis, named Spdt. I can’t remember if at one point Osiris’s severed penis was known as Sirius itself. But there is a connection to the motif of gods having their genitals removed, such as Dionysus, Attis and Mithras. This also reminds me of the bust of the penis-headed rooster, which Murdock interpreted to be of Peter, and which was titled Saviour of the World. Huller also made an interesting post about the name Cerinthus being related to the Egyptian word for foreskin.

      I’m not sure about that last bit as Rom 16 is absent from the Marcionite edition. But there does seem to be some latent sexual symbolism in Gnostic Christian sects.


      1. @Tim
        “What part of Marcion do you see as sexist?”
        Assuming that the author of some of the epistles is Paul (Marcion?) with the exception of the pastorals and Hebrews, there are instances of sexism in the Paulin epistles.

        “Wives, submit to your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord.” – Colossians 3:18, the Greek word for is “hypotasso” which define by Strong’s G5293 as subordination which is also used in Titus 2:9 as Paul exhorts slaves to be submissive to their masters.

        …the women should keep silence in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as even the law says. If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church.” 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 (Sharia Law anyone?)

        “Wives, be submissive to your husbands, as to the Lord. For the husband is head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior. As the church is subject to Christ, so let wives also be subject in everything to their husbands.” Ephesians 5:21-24

        I haven’t had a complete survey of the writings of Marcion’s opponents to be honest to look for signs of sexism. If there was in the Marcionite cult, the Church fathers editing Marcion’s works kept it. I want to ask you Tim, are there other Gnostic denominations who adore Sophia as the queen of heaven? It seems that the book of Revelation kept it which makes me think that Jesus prior to the mid second century was actually born of a woman but not in Bethlehem but rather in the divine pleroma.

        “The term Gnosticism is very problematic in scholarship…some (not crazy) scholars even say the word Gnostic should be tossed out. It’s very broad, and I think sometimes the term Gnostic gets overly used. For instance, I don’t think of the Ebionites and Cerinthians were Gnostics, but I think they were definitely on a spectrum which resembled it.”

        I think even some conservative and liberal scholars conflate Gnosticism with docetism which is the actual belief that Jesus existed not as a man with physical body but as a divine being up in the sky who was crucified not in Calvary but in the vault of the heavens which was carried out by the archons. I think 1 Cor 15:44-46. If the attempted reconstructions of Marcion’s gospel from Luke is 85% accurate, then it maybe safe to say that Marcion’s Jesus isn’t purely docetic unlike the Cerinthian gnosticism which I think is more docetic.


  4. @Daniel
    “I’m not sure about that last bit as Rom 16 is absent from the Marcionite edition. But there does seem to be some latent sexual symbolism in Gnostic Christian sects.”

    Kinda like the Agape Love Feasts?

    I think Barbara G. Walker touched that agape thing with sex orgies in both primitive Christianity and some Gnostic sects in her book “The Woman’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets”.


    1. It probably goes along with human biology and psychology being ostensibly tied together. So projecting sexual symbolism onto otherwise mundane structures or religious ideas is to be expected.

      An example of such symbolism is the crucifixion, which is itself phalic, representing penile erection. I’m sure you’ve also seen paintings of the crucifixion scene where Christ appears to have a very obvious phallus on his abdomen. This may go back to the Greek boundary herms and hermae of Hermes and Dionysus, which were themselves crosses and bestowed… endowment… to their followers.

      This may also extend even to Judaism, with the Temple being described in feminine qualities. It’s destruction as described in Lamentations and various Old Testament descriptions may have fed into how Sophia is herself ruined when she falls and sells herself into prostitution. There is a sort of sexual sadomasochism in this, as the level of detail in the description is almost erotica. It’s proven that sexual repression actually warps one’s sexuality and manifests in homosexualism and sadism. I’m sure there were a few people getting their rocks off at the story of Sophia.


  5. Whats your thoughts on Sophia. Some texts in the Nag Hammadi and in other things I’ve read seem to revolve around Eleleth as being the one who produced Yaldaboath or Samuel, etc. Many named many faced. And that through suffering and meditation and redevotion Eleleth or Sophia reattained oneness with the Pleroma. And to me this is a good example of what our journeys are. Granted i dont mean daily suffering. But this Universe and The Archons are really nasty when you look through the worldly viel.


    1. I think it should be expected that there would be variances across years and geography. I think for the Gnostics, there was one God (Demiurge) who was more-or-less a dead end to the Pleroma, and there was one God(dess) who did offer a pathway to the Pleroma. The Logos (or sometimes other ideals) offered a proxy to Sophia, which created a pathway for the Spiritual man. The so-called Sethians had variance around this abstraction.


      1. Cool. Me too. I’m kinda new to this and there is so much info. And plus like you just said and some of you were discussing, history and man and even personal holy people’s view change truths sometimes. It’s like a reference from the Gospel of Thomas I believe. Tell Mary, to Jesus, to go away and Jesus replies I will help her be more like you men. I think it means women being helped to not be meek. But again, it doesn’t seem to fit that Mother Mary was meek. A never ending question in some ways. If she was she grew with Jesus as he reached adulthood. Thanks again


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